My Autobiography   Leave a comment

My name is Lidya Dewi Wulandarii you can call me. I was born on 08 January 1992  in Bekasi.
I started my education from kindergarten, I was in kindergarten and Nurul Islam in 1999 at the age of 6 years I have received in the SDN 01 Bekasi Jaya and I graduated in academic year 2004, after which I entered SMP in the Bani Salaeh 01  year 2004 at the SMA  Korpri and I paada graduated in 2007, after graduating SMP I choose to continue on to high school Bani Saleh 01 majored in social studies and after graduation I continued studying at Gunadarma, I menagmbil majoring in economics faculty of management until now.

My experience during my pursuit of my education has been getting job training in high school and college education I have been running in schools or study barengi CINEMATOGRAFI
About the weaknesses and strengths, I can not judge that I kelemehan and excess seen by others

Posted Juni 12, 2014 by lidyadewi in Uncategorized

BUSINESS IN INDONESIA   Leave a comment

Tea

Tea is one of the world’s most consumed beverages. It is thought to originate from China where tea has been drunk for thousands of years. Around the 16th century, when the Portuguese were expanding their power, this beverage was imported to Europe and quickly gained popularity. This popularity made the Portuguese and the Dutch decide to establish large-scale tea plantations in their tropical colonies.

Constant temperatures and humidity are idealconditionsforthe teaplant to grow. Such conditions can be found in the tropical and subtropical climates in Asia where currently more than 60 percent of global tea production is cultivated. In particular, the cooler highlands will produce a good quality of tea leaves. The tea plant can be first harvested after it has reached the age of around four years. When harvesting, only young leaves are selected, implying that manual picking is more efficient than using mechanical equipment. Tea production is therefore a labor-intensive business.
Two countries that dominate the global tea production are China and India. Together these two countries account for almost half of global tea production.

Top Eight Tea Producers in 2011

1. China       1,640,310 5. Turkey       221,600
2. India         966,733 6. Vietnam       206,600
3. Kenya         377,912 7. Iran       162,517
4. Sri Lanka         327,500 8. Indonesia       142,400

in metric tonnes
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Tea in Indonesia

Production and Export of Indonesian Tea

Indonesia currently ranks number eight on the list of largest global tea producers. In the past it has been higher up that list but the lucrative business prospects of palm oil have caused the tea output to stagnate as some tea plantations were transformed into palm oil plantations. But tea estates have also been given up for the production of vegetables and other crops that are considered more profitable. Despite the resulting decrease in land acreage tea production has remained relatively stable. This indicates that the remaining tea estates have become more productive.

      2007     2008     2009     2010     2011    2012  
Indonesian Tea Production
(in metric tonnes)
 150,623  153,971  156,904  150,342  142,400  

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The provinces that produce most of Indonesia’s total tea output are:

1. West Java (produces around 70 percent of national tea production)
2. Central Java
3. North Sumatra

Approximately 65 percent of the Indonesian tea production is exported. The main countries of export destination are Russia, Great Britain, and Pakistan. Export is dominated by large plantations, both state-owned and private, while the majority of smallholders are more oriented towards the domestic market (which is not big as Indonesia contains a low rate of per capita tea consumption). This orientation towards the export market has implications for the Indonesian tea sector as it is highly dependent and vulnerable to the international market, in particular regarding the tea price. When supply exceeds demand in the international market, domestic prices fall sharply. This affects smallholder farmers severely, as they need to sell their tea at lower prices (which hardly compensate production costs).

Similar to other commodities, Indonesia relies on the export of bulk tea, which is a primary (upstream) product. The weak development of Indonesia’s downstream tea industry curtails the competitiveness of the Indonesian tea industry on the international market. The export of downstream tea products is only around 6 percent of total tea exports.

Future Prospects

Global tea consumption rises by about four percent annually. Indonesia’s domestic tea consumption is rising on a much higher level: more than 20 percent annually in recent years. As Indonesia’s tea production is showing a decreasing trend and exports account for around 65 percent of tea production (mostly the premium quality), the country needs to import tea to satisfy domestic demand. Tea imports comprise about 25 percent of Indonesia’s domestic tea consumption. Imports will have to be increased if the government provides no incentives to develop the country’s tea industry. Moreover, Indonesia will keep losing ground to the other tea producing countries if no investments – whether public or private – are made.

PT Sariwangi TEA

PT Sariwangi TEA was established in 1962, initially operated in the field of tea trading and later-on becoming a tea producer (produce tea on its own-self including blending and manufacturing packaged products).

In late 1980’s, The company introduces a concept of tea bag in the Indonesia market using its own company brand  called Sariwangi and at the same time introduced the name “Teh Celup” in Indonesia. At later stage, the brand was acquired by Unilever Indonesia in 1989.

During the next 12 years, the marketing strategy of Sari Wangi co.ltd was kept to the international market shipping tea to all over the world to Russia, Middle East, East Europe, US, Australia, SEA and South Pacific.

Today, PT Sariwangi AEA has a complete infrastructure from tea leafs to a cup of tea (from tea estates all the way to pack and market our own brand).
The company leads the market amongst private companies in commodity trading, up to 60,000 tons annually, capacity of manufacturing up to 8 billion teabags, self-made packaging machineries, own-supply of made tea up to 11,000 tons annually.

Posted April 30, 2014 by lidyadewi in Uncategorized

BUSINESS IN INDONESIA   Leave a comment

Tea

Tea is one of the world’s most consumed beverages. It is thought to originate from China where tea has been drunk for thousands of years. Around the 16th century, when the Portuguese were expanding their power, this beverage was imported to Europe and quickly gained popularity. This popularity made the Portuguese and the Dutch decide to establish large-scale tea plantations in their tropical colonies.

Constant temperatures and humidity are idealconditionsforthe teaplant to grow. Such conditions can be found in the tropical and subtropical climates in Asia where currently more than 60 percent of global tea production is cultivated. In particular, the cooler highlands will produce a good quality of tea leaves. The tea plant can be first harvested after it has reached the age of around four years. When harvesting, only young leaves are selected, implying that manual picking is more efficient than using mechanical equipment. Tea production is therefore a labor-intensive business.
Two countries that dominate the global tea production are China and India. Together these two countries account for almost half of global tea production.

Top Eight Tea Producers in 2011

1. China       1,640,310 5. Turkey       221,600
2. India         966,733 6. Vietnam       206,600
3. Kenya         377,912 7. Iran       162,517
4. Sri Lanka         327,500 8. Indonesia       142,400

in metric tonnes
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Tea in Indonesia

Production of Indonesian Tea

Indonesia currently ranks number eight on the list of largest global tea producers. In the past it has been higher up that list but the lucrative business prospects of palm oil have caused the tea output to stagnate as some tea plantations were transformed into palm oil plantations. But tea estates have also been given up for the production of vegetables and other crops that are considered more profitable. Despite the resulting decrease in land acreage tea production has remained relatively stable. This indicates that the remaining tea estates have become more productive.

      2007     2008     2009     2010     2011    2012  
Indonesian Tea Production
(in metric tonnes)
 150,623  153,971  156,904  150,342  142,400  

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The provinces that produce most of Indonesia’s total tea output are:

1. West Java (produces around 70 percent of national tea production)
2. Central Java
3. North Sumatra

Approximately 65 percent of the Indonesian tea production is exported. The main countries of export destination are Russia, Great Britain, and Pakistan. Export is dominated by large plantations, both state-owned and private, while the majority of smallholders are more oriented towards the domestic market (which is not big as Indonesia contains a low rate of per capita tea consumption). This orientation towards the export market has implications for the Indonesian tea sector as it is highly dependent and vulnerable to the international market, in particular regarding the tea price. When supply exceeds demand in the international market, domestic prices fall sharply. This affects smallholder farmers severely, as they need to sell their tea at lower prices (which hardly compensate production costs).

Similar to other commodities, Indonesia relies on the export of bulk tea, which is a primary (upstream) product. The weak development of Indonesia’s downstream tea industry curtails the competitiveness of the Indonesian tea industry on the international market. The export of downstream tea products is only around 6 percent of total tea exports.

Future Prospects

Global tea consumption rises by about four percent annually. Indonesia’s domestic tea consumption is rising on a much higher level: more than 20 percent annually in recent years. As Indonesia’s tea production is showing a decreasing trend and exports account for around 65 percent of tea production (mostly the premium quality), the country needs to import tea to satisfy domestic demand. Tea imports comprise about 25 percent of Indonesia’s domestic tea consumption. Imports will have to be increased if the government provides no incentives to develop the country’s tea industry. Moreover, Indonesia will keep losing ground to the other tea producing countries if no investments – whether public or private – are made.

Major Indonesian Companies Occupied in Tea Production

• PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VIII
• PT. Perkebunan Nusantara IV
• PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VI
• PT. Perkebunan Nusantara XII
• PT. Tatar Anyar Indonesia

Posted April 30, 2014 by lidyadewi in Uncategorized

PASSIVE VOICE   Leave a comment

PASSIVE AND ACTIVE VOICE

CONTOH KALIMAT ACTIVE DAN PASSIVE VOICE

He believes you. ( active)
You are believed by him. (passive)

They did the test. (active)

The test was done by them. (passive)

My mother is making a cake. (active)

A cake is being made by my mother. (passive)

She will hold a party. (active)

A party will be held by her. (passive)

The team has won the match.(active)

The match has been won by the team. (passive)

 He would cancel the meeting. (active)

The meeting would be cancelled by him. (passive)

They made this plane in Germany. (active)

This plane was made by them in Germany. (passive)

 We can help you. (active)

You can be helped by us. (passive)

The army shot the terrorist. (active)

The terrorist was shot by the army. (passive)

 Rizki is taking the umbrella. (active)

The umbrella is being took by Rizki. (passive) 

Active : He meets them everyday.
Passive : They are met by him everyday.

Active : She waters this plant every two days.
Passive : This plant is watered by her every two days.

Active : He met them yesterday
Passive : They were met by him yesterday

Active : She watered this plant this morning
Passive : This plant was watered by her this morning

Active : He has met them
Passive : They have been met by him
Active : She has watered this plant for 5 minutes.
Passive : This plant has been watered by her for 5 minutes.

Active : He had met them before I came.
Passive : They had been met by him before I came.

Active : She had watered this plant for 5 minutes when I got here
Passive : This plant had been watered by her for 5 minutes when I got here

 

Harry ate six shrimp at dinner. (active)

At dinner, six shrimp were eaten by Harry. (passive)

Beautiful giraffes roam the savannah. (active)

The savannah is roamed by beautiful giraffes. (passive)

Sue changed the flat tire. (active)

The flat tire was changed by Sue. (passive)

We are going to watch a movie tonight. (active)

A movie is going to be watched by us tonight. (passive)

 

Referensi Internet : http://bursa-kerja.ptkpt.net/_karir.php?_karir=contoh-cv-inggris

 

Active and Passive Voice


Kalimat Aktif dan Kalimat Pasif
Kata kerja transitif mempunyai dua voice (ragam gramatikal), aktif dan pasif.
1) Bentuk aktif adalah orang, binatang, atau benda yang ditunjukkan oleh subjek dikatakan melakukan sesuatu pada yang lain.
Contoh: Karim killed a tiger. Karim membunuh seekor harimau
2) Bentuk pasif adalah orang, binatang atau benda dikatakan menderita sesuatu dari sesuatu yang lain.
Contoh: A tiger was killed by Karim. Seekor harimau dibunuh oleh Karim
Bentuk pasif :
To Be + Past Participle

Voices dalam konteks ini merupakan bentuk dari kata kerja yang menunjukan subjek melakukan sesuatu atau sesuatu telah dilakukan oleh subjek, Active Voice (kalimat aktif)
adalah kalimat yang subjeknya melakukan suatu tindakan atau perbuatan.
Contoh:
• Miss Julian calls the girl
• We killed a bird
Kedua kalimat diatas merupakan kalimat aktif karena subjeknya masing-masing kalimat secara aktif melakukan perbuatan, yaitu calls (memanggil), killed (membunuh).

Passive Voice (kalimat pasif)
adalah kalimat yang subjeknya dikenai suatu tindakan atau pekerjaan dan secara tata bahasa inggris diawali oleh kata depan / (preposition) input by yang artinya oleh.
Contoh:
• The girl is called by miss yohana
• A bird is killed by us
Kedua contoh kalimat diatas adalah kalimat pasif, karena subjeknya masing-masing kalimat dikenai tindakan atau pekerjaan aktif melakukan perbuatan yaitu calls (memanggil), killed (membunuh).

Cara-cara untuk membuat kalimat aktif dan kalimat pasif.
Untuk membuat kalimat aktif dan kalimat pasif maka ada beberapa cara atau langkah yang harus diperhatikan, yaitu:
1. Kalimat aktif yang akan diubah harus memiliki Objek. Dalam hal ini kata kerja yang digunakan adalah kata kerja yang memerlukan objek
2. Kata kerja kalimat pasif harus berbentuk past participle (kata kerja bentuk ketiga) atau yang didahului to be (is, am, are,was, were, being, been) yang diikutioleh by (oleh).


Kalimat Akti-Pasif berdasarkan bentuk-bentuk tense adalah sebagai berikut:
1. Simple Present Tense
•Aktif : Dody doesn’t read an English book
•Pasif : An English book isn’t read by Dody

•Aktif : Does Mira read an English book?
•Pasif : Is an English book read by Mira?

2. Present Continouse Tense
•Aktif : Dewi isn’t reading an English book
•Pasif : An English book isn’t being read by Dewi

•Aktif : What is Maya reading?
•Pasif : What is being read by Maya?

3. Past Continouse Tense
•Aktif : Dewi wasn’t reading an English book
•Pasif : An English book wasn’t being read by Dewi

•Aktif : What was Tama reading?
•Pasif : What was being read by Tama?

4. Past Perfect Tense
•Aktif : Bima hadn’t readi an English book
•Pasif : An English book hadn’t been read by Bima

•Aktif : Who hada a Biology book?
•Pasif : Who had a Biology book been read by?

5. Past Perfect Continouse Tense
•Aktif : Bima hadn’t been reading an English book
•Pasif : An English book hadn’t been read by Bima

•Aktif : What had Yogi been being reading?
•Pasif : What had been being read by Yogi?

Referensi Buku:
1. Grammar Praktis. Drs. Haeruddin Sudibja. Gemagung Ikhtiari
2. Buku Pintar English Grammar, Muhammad Jauhar, Publisher

Posted Maret 24, 2014 by lidyadewi in Uncategorized

CURRICULUM VITAE   Leave a comment

Curriculum Vitae

 

Personal Details

Full Name
Sex
Place, Date of Birth
Nationality
Marital Status
Height, Weight
Health
Religion
Address
Mobile
Phone
E-mail

: Lidya Dewi Wulandari
: Female
: Bekasi, January 8, 1992
: Indonesia
: No married
: 155 cm, 48 kg
: Perfect
: Moslem
: BJI Mekarsari, Blok D15 No.11, Bekasi 17112
: 0857 1990 7531
: 021 – 8822454
: akew_pinky@yahoo.com

 

Educational Background

1998 – 2004
2004 – 2007
2007 – 2010
2010 – 2014

: Al-Azar Elementary School, Bekasi
: Bani Saleh Junior High School No.1, Bekasi
: Korpri Senior High School No.1, Bekasi
: Management Economy at the University of Gunadarma, Bekasi

Course & Education

2007 – 2008
2009 – 2009

: Computer & Internet Course at Gilland Ganesha, Bekasi
: English Language Course at LBA Gilland Ganesha, Bekasi

 

Qualifications

  1. Accounting & Administration Skills (Journal Printing & Calculation, Ledger, Petty Cash Payroll & Calculation, Inventory Controls, Project Data Updating, Teller, Salary Caldulation).
  2. Taxation System.
  3. Computer Literate (MS Word, MS Excel, MS Power Point, MS Access, MS Outlook).
  4. Internet Literate.

Working Experience

Working at PT. Flamboyan Bumi Singo, Cibinong

Period
Purpose
Position

: August 2015 – January 2016
: Permanently working
: Accounting & Taxation staff

Job’s Description :

 

  • Payroll Staff;
  • Project’s data updating;
  • Business correspondences;
  • Expatriates documentation filling & follow up;
  • Translation;
  • Appointment arrangement;
  • Filling anda data updating;
  • Arranged of business trip schedule;
  • Meeting budget arrangement;
  • Procurement filling, inventory control, and administration asistant;
  • Preparing for breakdown statement for the project, preparing intern finance circular correspondences, and preparing for the presentation materials;
  • Issuing invoice & receipt for vendor and customers;
  • Inventory Controller;
  • Preparation of purchase requirement and purchase order;
  • Invoice & payment arrangement.

 

 

Bekasi, January 1, 2015

Lidya Dewi Wulandari

Posted Maret 24, 2014 by lidyadewi in Uncategorized

TUGAS POSTING 2   Leave a comment

1.     Sebutkan apa yg kalian ketahui tentang good corporate govermance?

Jawab :  Good Corporate Governance pada dasarnya merupakan suatu sistem (input, Proses, output) dan seperangkat peraturan yang mengatur hubungan antara berbagai pihak yang kepentingan (stakeholders) terutama dalam arti sempit hubungan antara pemegang saham, dewan komisaris, dan dewan direksi demi tercapainya tujuan perusahaan. Good Corporate Gorvernance dimasukkan untuk mengatur hubungan-hubungan ini dan mencegah terjadinya kesalaha-kesalahan signifikan dalam strategi perusahaan dan untuk memastikan bahwa kesalahan-kesalahan yang terjadi dapat di perebaiki dengan segera. Penertian ini dikutip dari buku Good Corporate Governance pada badan usaha manufaktur, perbankan dan jasa keuangan lainnya

 

2.     Jelaskan kesinambungan atau hubungan gcg dengan manajemen perusahaan. Berdasarkan pemahaman yg kalian ketahui.

Jawab :  hubungan Good Corporate Governance ( GCG )di dalam Perusahaan yang dikelola, agar dapat menghasilkan kinerja yang baik antara pemegang saham, dewan komisaris, dan dewan direksi dalam membuat keputusan dan menjalankannya sesuai dengan nilai moral yang telah ditetapkan demi tercapainya tujuan dari perusahaan tersebut. Seperti contoh Perusahaan: “Semua pihak juga berupaya untuk memperkuat hubungan kerja satu sama lain. Singkatnya, Antam menyadari pentingnya hubungan kerja yang harmonis serta kerjasama diantara organ-organ tata kelola, manajemen dan staf untuk mempertahankan dan meningkatkan praktik GCG di Antam secara berkelanjutan. Maka dari itu Antam adalah salah satu contoh perusahaan yang patut ditiru oleh perusahaan-perusahaan yang lainnya.

 

3.     Jelaskan apa yg kalian ketahui mengenai agency theory dan solusi memperkecil timbulnua agency theory.

Jawab : pengembangan agency theory yang mencoba menjelaskan bagaimana pihak – pihak yang terlibat dalam perusahaan (manajer, pemilik perusahaan dan kreditor) akan berperilaku, karena mereka pada dasarnya mempunyai kepentingan yang berbeda. Masalah corporate governance timbul karena terjadi pemisahan antara kepemilikan dan pengendalian perusahaan.

 

Hubungan Badan terjadi ketika pelaku menyewa agen untuk melakukan layanan atas nama kepala sekolah. Prinsipal umum mendelegasikan otoritas pengambilan keputusan kepada agen. Masalah agency dapat timbul karena inefisiensi dan informasi yang tidak lengkap. Dalam keuangan, hubungan dua lembaga penting adalah mereka antara pemegang saham dan manajer, dan pemegang saham dan kreditur.

 

Teori keagenan berkaitan dengan menyelesaikan masalah yang bisa eksis dalam hubungan keagenan, yaitu antara para pelaku (seperti pemegang saham) dan agen dari para pelaku (misalnya, eksekutif perusahaan). Dua masalah yang lembaga alamat teori adalah:

 

1.) Masalah yang muncul ketika keinginan atau tujuan dari prinsipal dan agen berada dalam konflik, dan kepala sekolah tidak dapat memastikan (karena sulit dan / atau mahal untuk melakukannya) apa agen benar-benar melakukan,

2) masalah yang timbul ketika prinsipal dan agen memiliki sikap yang berbeda terhadap risiko.. Karena toleransi risiko yang berbeda, kepala sekolah dan agen mungkin masing-masing cenderung untuk mengambil tindakan yang berbeda.

 

 

4.     Apa yg kalian ketahui mengenai etika bisnis dan konsep good corporate givermance (gcg). Dan apakah adakah kehubungannya?

 Jawab ;

a.     Transparansi ( transparency) : keterbukaandalam melaksanakan proses pengambilankeputusan dan mengemukakan informasimateril yang relevan mengenai perusahaan.

b.     Pengungkapan ( disclosure ) : penyajianinformasi kepada stakeholders, baik dimintamaupun tidak diminta, mengenai hal-halyang berkenaan dengan kinerja operasional,keuangan, dan resiko usahaperusahaan.

c.      Kemandirian (independence ) : suatukeadaan dimana perusahaan dikelola secaraprofesional tanpa benturan kepentingan danpengaruh/tekanan dari pihak manapun yangtidak sesuai dengan peraturanperundanganyang berlaku dan prinsip-prinsip korporasiyang sehat.

d.     Akuntabilitas ( accountability) : kejelasanfungsi, pelaksanaan dan pertanggungjawabanManajemen perusa-haan sehinggapengelolaan perusahaan terlaksana secaraefektif dan ekonomis.

e.      Pertanggungjawaban (responsibility ) :kesesuaian dalam pengelolaan perusahaanterhadap peraturan perundang-undanganyang berlaku dan prinsip-prinsip korporasiyang sehat.

f.       Kewajaran (fairness ) : keadilan dankesetaraan di dalam memenuhi hak-hakstakeholders yang timbul berdasarkanperjanjian dan peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku.

 

5.     Jelaskan good corporate governance dalam konteks bisnis masa depan. Beserta contoh.

Jawab :

perusahaan investasi yang tercatat di bursa london telah menemukan indikasipenyimpangan laporan keuangan di anakusahanya, PT Bumi Resources Tbk (BUMI).Saat ini, penyimpangan tersebut akandiselidiki oleh penyelidik independen.Head of Group Communications and InvestorRelations Nick von Schirnding menjelaskanpotensi penyimpangan perusahaan BUMI adapada laporan keuangan tahun 2011. “Atastuduhan tersebut, kami akan menghubungipihak otoritas terkait baik di bursa Londonmaupun bursa efek Indonesia,” kataSchirnding dalam keterbukaan informasi disitusnya, Senin (24/9/2012).Menurut Schirnding, fokus area investigasiperseroan terhadap BUMI Resources adalahyang terkait dana pengembangan dan danaoperasional. Selain itu, Bumi Plc juga akanfokus melakukan investigasi lebih intensifpada salah satu aset investasi di PT BerauCoal Energy Tbk (BRAU).“Dalam laporan keuangan Bumi Plc 2011,salah satu aset yang dimiliki Berau tercatatmengalami penurunan nilai hingga mencapaiangka nol, kecuali untuk satu investasi yangmemiliki nilai sebesar 39 juta dollar ASdalam laporan keuangan konsolidasi kami,”tambahnya.Sekadar catatan, saat ini Bumi Plc memiliki29,2 persen saham di Bumi Resources.Sementara pada PT Berau Coal Energy,perusahaan yang tercatat di Bursa Efek london ini memiliki bagian sebesar 85 persen.Atas kabar tersebut, saham BUMI langsunganjlok 160 poin (19,05 persen) ke level Rp680 per lembar saham. Begitu juga dengansaham Bumi Plc yang turun 48,3 poin (24,66persen) ke level 147,6 pound per lembarsaham.

Analisa : Menurut pandangan saya GCG ikutberperan membantu memberikan kemajuanterhadapkinerja suatu perusahaan jugauntuk mencegah terjadinya kecurangan didalam perusahaan serta menjadi kuncisukses perusahaan dalam menjalankanbisnisnya. Khususnya pada laporankeuangan Bumi Pcl dan juga perusahaan-perusahaan lainnya perlu adanya peninjauansecara langsung, transparan dan aturansanksi yang tegas agar terhindar daripenyalahgunaan dan kerugian untuk orangbanyak.

 

6.     Jelaskan permasalahan yg timbuk dalam penerapan good corporate givernance. Dan bagai mana penyelesaiaannya.

Jawab :

banyak para ahli yang berpendapat bahwa kelemahan didalam corporate governance merupakan salah satu sumber utama kerawanan ekonomi yang menyebabkan memburuknya perekonomian negara-negara tersebut pada tahun 1997 dan 1998. Bahkan di Inggris pada akhir dasawarsa 1980an masalah corporate governance menjadi perhatian publik sebagai akibat publisitas masalah-masalah korporat seperti masalah creative accounting, kebangkrutan perusahaan dalam skala yang sangat besar, penyalahgunaan dana stakeholders oleh para manajer, terbatasnya peran auditor, tidak jelasnya kaitan antara kompensasi ekskutif dengan kinerja perusahaan, merger dan akuisisi yang merugikan perekonomian secara keseluruhan (Keasey and Wright, 1997).

 

Posted Oktober 23, 2013 by lidyadewi in Uncategorized

TUGAS POSTING 1   Leave a comment

1.     Jelaskan apa yg kalian ketahui mengenai pengambilan keputusan.

Jawab : Pengambilan keputusan yaitu suatu cara yang digunakan untuk memberikan suatu pendapat yang dapat menyelesaikan suatu masalah dengan cara / teknik tertentu agar dapat lebih diterima oleh semua pihak. Masalahnya telebih dahulu harus diketahui dan dirumuskan dengan jelas, sedangkan pemecahannya harus didasarkan pemilihan alternatif terbaik dari alternatif yang ada.

 

2.     Sebutkan dan jelaskan tahapan2an dlm pengambilan keputusan.

Jawab :Menurut Simon (1960) ada beberapa tahap pengambilan keputusan, disebutkan olehnya proses pengambilan keputusan ada 4 tahapan yakni :

a.     Intelligence : pengumpulan informasi untuk mengindetifikasikan permasalahan

b.     Design : tahap perancangan solusi dalam bentuk alternative pemecahan masalah

c.      Choice : tahap memilih dari solusi dari alternative-alternativeyang disediakan

d.     Implementation : tahap melaksanakan keputusan dan melaporkan hasilnya

 

3.     Sebutkan dan jelaskan pendekatan2an etika bisnis dalam pengambilan keputusan.

Jawab :

a.     Pendekatan stakeholder Adalah pendekatan baru yang banyak digunakan khususnya dalam etika bisnis.

b.     Pendekatan bermanfaat

Pendekatan bermanfaat(utilitarian approach), yang dudukung oleh filsafat abad kesembilan belas ,pendekatan bermanfaat itu sendiri adalah konsep tentang etika bahwa prilaku moral menghasilkan kebaikan terbesar bagi jumlah terbesar.

c.      Pendekatan individualisme

Pendekatan individualisme adalah konsep tentang etika bahwa suatu tindakan dianggap pantas ketika tindakan tersebut mengusung kepentingan terbaik jangka panjang seorang indivudu.

 

4.     Apa yang kalian ketahui mengenai penghunaan pohon keputusan sebagai pendukung dalam proses pengambil keputusan. (gambarkan) sertakan contohnya.

Jawab : keputusan yang kompleksnya pada dasamya merupakan suatu kumpulan alternatif tindakan yang akan diikuti oleh kumpulankejadian yang tidak pasti yang melingkupi setiap keputusan/tindakan yang dipilih. Untuk memudahkan penggambaran keadaan keputusan dengan jalan memilih alternatif, secara sistematis dan komprehensif atau menyeluruh, perlu digunakan suatu diagram yang pada dasarnya merupakan suatu rangkaian kronologis tentang kejadian apa yang mungkin terjadi sebagai akibat dari alternatif tindakan atau keputusan. Diagram ini disebut diagram pohon keputusan,

 

Model ini merupakan suatu diagram yang cukup sederhana yang menunjukkan suatu proses untuk merinci masalah-masalah yang dihadapinya kedalam komponen-komponen, kemudian dibuatkan alternatif-alternatif pemecahan beserta konsekuensi masing-masing. Dengan demikian, maka pimpinan tinggal memilih alternative mana yang sekiranya paling tepat untuk dijadikan keputusan. Pohon keputusan ini biasanya dipergunakan untuk memecahkan masalah-masalah yang timbul dalam proyek yang sedang ditangani. Diagram pohon itu sangat bermanfaat bagi tim yang mengadakan analisi masalah untuk kemudian dipecahkan bersama-sama dalam tim itu karena masalahnya dan pemecahaanya saling berkaitan. Tanpa bantuan anggota tim lainnya masalah yang begitu kompleks tidak akan dapat dipecahkan.

 

Diagram Pohon Keputusan : yaitu gabungan dari simpul keputusan dan simpul kejadian tak pasti. Tujuan pembuatan Diagram Pohon Keputusan adalah untuk membantu seorang pemimpin dalam mengambil / menetapkan suatu keputusan. Cara Penggambaran Diagram Pohon Keputusan : Untuk memahami pembuatan diagram pohon keputusan kita dapat memperhatikan contoh dibawah ini :

Contoh

Seorang direktur produksi suatu perusahaan akan memutuskan untuk membeli bahan mentahsekarang (alternatif I) atau membeli besok pagi (alternatif II), masing-masing tindakanmenimbulkan atau memberikan hasil yang berbeda, berupa biaya pengadaan barang. Apabiladia membeli sekarang biaya pengadaan per unit barang Rp 14,5 ribu, akan tetapi kalau pembelian dilakukan besok pagi ada dua kemungkinan, biaya akan tin mcnjadi Kp 10.000 ataumengalami kenaikan menjadi Rp 20.(XX).

Posted Oktober 23, 2013 by lidyadewi in Uncategorized